Mining Monero with a Raspberry Pi Zero - Publish0x

Would it be at all profitable to mine bitcoin on a Raspberry Pi Zero? /r/Bitcoin

Would it be at all profitable to mine bitcoin on a Raspberry Pi Zero? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Why Osana takes so long? (Programmer's point of view on current situation)

I decided to write a comment about «Why Osana takes so long?» somewhere and what can be done to shorten this time. It turned into a long essay. Here's TL;DR of it:
The cost of never paying down this technical debt is clear; eventually the cost to deliver functionality will become so slow that it is easy for a well-designed competitive software product to overtake the badly-designed software in terms of features. In my experience, badly designed software can also lead to a more stressed engineering workforce, in turn leading higher staff churn (which in turn affects costs and productivity when delivering features). Additionally, due to the complexity in a given codebase, the ability to accurately estimate work will also disappear.
Junade Ali, Mastering PHP Design Patterns (2016)
Longer version: I am not sure if people here wanted an explanation from a real developer who works with C and with relatively large projects, but I am going to do it nonetheless. I am not much interested in Yandere Simulator nor in this genre in general, but this particular development has a lot to learn from for any fellow programmers and software engineers to ensure that they'll never end up in Alex's situation, especially considering that he is definitely not the first one to got himself knee-deep in the development hell (do you remember Star Citizen?) and he is definitely not the last one.
On the one hand, people see that Alex works incredibly slowly, equivalent of, like, one hour per day, comparing it with, say, Papers, Please, the game that was developed in nine months from start to finish by one guy. On the other hand, Alex himself most likely thinks that he works until complete exhaustion each day. In fact, I highly suspect that both those sentences are correct! Because of the mistakes made during early development stages, which are highly unlikely to be fixed due to the pressure put on the developer right now and due to his overall approach to coding, cost to add any relatively large feature (e.g. Osana) can be pretty much comparable to the cost of creating a fan game from start to finish. Trust me, I've seen his leaked source code (don't tell anybody about that) and I know what I am talking about. The largest problem in Yandere Simulator right now is its super slow development. So, without further ado, let's talk about how «implementing the low hanging fruit» crippled the development and, more importantly, what would have been an ideal course of action from my point of view to get out. I'll try to explain things in the easiest terms possible.
  1. else if's and lack any sort of refactoring in general
The most «memey» one. I won't talk about the performance though (switch statement is not better in terms of performance, it is a myth. If compiler detects some code that can be turned into a jump table, for example, it will do it, no matter if it is a chain of if's or a switch statement. Compilers nowadays are way smarter than one might think). Just take a look here. I know that it's his older JavaScript code, but, believe it or not, this piece is still present in C# version relatively untouched.
I refactored this code for you using C language (mixed with C++ since there's no this pointer in pure C). Take a note that else if's are still there, else if's are not the problem by itself.
The refactored code is just objectively better for one simple reason: it is shorter, while not being obscure, and now it should be able to handle, say, Trespassing and Blood case without any input from the developer due to the usage of flags. Basically, the shorter your code, the more you can see on screen without spreading your attention too much. As a rule of thumb, the less lines there are, the easier it is for you to work with the code. Just don't overkill that, unless you are going to participate in International Obfuscated C Code Contest. Let me reiterate:
Perfection is achieved, not when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing left to take away.
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
This is why refactoring — activity of rewriting your old code so it does the same thing, but does it quicker, in a more generic way, in less lines or simpler — is so powerful. In my experience, you can only keep one module/class/whatever in your brain if it does not exceed ~1000 lines, maybe ~1500. Splitting 17000-line-long class into smaller classes probably won't improve performance at all, but it will make working with parts of this class way easier.
Is it too late now to start refactoring? Of course NO: better late than never.
  1. Comments
If you think that you wrote this code, so you'll always easily remember it, I have some bad news for you: you won't. In my experience, one week and that's it. That's why comments are so crucial. It is not necessary to put a ton of comments everywhere, but just a general idea will help you out in the future. Even if you think that It Just Works™ and you'll never ever need to fix it. Time spent to write and debug one line of code almost always exceeds time to write one comment in large-scale projects. Moreover, the best code is the code that is self-evident. In the example above, what the hell does (float) 6 mean? Why not wrap it around into the constant with a good, self-descriptive name? Again, it won't affect performance, since C# compiler is smart enough to silently remove this constant from the real code and place its value into the method invocation directly. Such constants are here for you.
I rewrote my code above a little bit to illustrate this. With those comments, you don't have to remember your code at all, since its functionality is outlined in two tiny lines of comments above it. Moreover, even a person with zero knowledge in programming will figure out the purpose of this code. It took me less than half a minute to write those comments, but it'll probably save me quite a lot of time of figuring out «what was I thinking back then» one day.
Is it too late now to start adding comments? Again, of course NO. Don't be lazy and redirect all your typing from «debunk» page (which pretty much does the opposite of debunking, but who am I to judge you here?) into some useful comments.
  1. Unit testing
This is often neglected, but consider the following. You wrote some code, you ran your game, you saw a new bug. Was it introduced right now? Is it a problem in your older code which has shown up just because you have never actually used it until now? Where should you search for it? You have no idea, and you have one painful debugging session ahead. Just imagine how easier it would be if you've had some routines which automatically execute after each build and check that environment is still sane and nothing broke on a fundamental level. This is called unit testing, and yes, unit tests won't be able to catch all your bugs, but even getting 20% of bugs identified at the earlier stage is a huge boon to development speed.
Is it too late now to start adding unit tests? Kinda YES and NO at the same time. Unit testing works best if it covers the majority of project's code. On the other side, a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. If you decide to start refactoring your code, writing a unit test before refactoring will help you to prove to yourself that you have not broken anything without the need of running the game at all.
  1. Static code analysis
This is basically pretty self-explanatory. You set this thing once, you forget about it. Static code analyzer is another «free estate» to speed up the development process by finding tiny little errors, mostly silly typos (do you think that you are good enough in finding them? Well, good luck catching x << 4; in place of x <<= 4; buried deep in C code by eye!). Again, this is not a silver bullet, it is another tool which will help you out with debugging a little bit along with the debugger, unit tests and other things. You need every little bit of help here.
Is it too late now to hook up static code analyzer? Obviously NO.
  1. Code architecture
Say, you want to build Osana, but then you decided to implement some feature, e.g. Snap Mode. By doing this you have maybe made your game a little bit better, but what you have just essentially done is complicated your life, because now you should also write Osana code for Snap Mode. The way game architecture is done right now, easter eggs code is deeply interleaved with game logic, which leads to code «spaghettifying», which in turn slows down the addition of new features, because one has to consider how this feature would work alongside each and every old feature and easter egg. Even if it is just gazing over one line per easter egg, it adds up to the mess, slowly but surely.
A lot of people mention that developer should have been doing it in object-oritented way. However, there is no silver bullet in programming. It does not matter that much if you are doing it object-oriented way or usual procedural way; you can theoretically write, say, AI routines on functional (e.g. LISP)) or even logical language if you are brave enough (e.g. Prolog). You can even invent your own tiny programming language! The only thing that matters is code quality and avoiding the so-called shotgun surgery situation, which plagues Yandere Simulator from top to bottom right now. Is there a way of adding a new feature without interfering with your older code (e.g. by creating a child class which will encapsulate all the things you need, for example)? Go for it, this feature is basically «free» for you. Otherwise you'd better think twice before doing this, because you are going into the «technical debt» territory, borrowing your time from the future by saying «I'll maybe optimize it later» and «a thousand more lines probably won't slow me down in the future that much, right?». Technical debt will incur interest on its own that you'll have to pay. Basically, the entire situation around Osana right now is just a huge tale about how just «interest» incurred by technical debt can control the entire project, like the tail wiggling the dog.
I won't elaborate here further, since it'll take me an even larger post to fully describe what's wrong about Yandere Simulator's code architecture.
Is it too late to rebuild code architecture? Sadly, YES, although it should be possible to split Student class into descendants by using hooks for individual students. However, code architecture can be improved by a vast margin if you start removing easter eggs and features like Snap Mode that currently bloat Yandere Simulator. I know it is going to be painful, but it is the only way to improve code quality here and now. This will simplify the code, and this will make it easier for you to add the «real» features, like Osana or whatever you'd like to accomplish. If you'll ever want them back, you can track them down in Git history and re-implement them one by one, hopefully without performing the shotgun surgery this time.
  1. Loading times
Again, I won't be talking about the performance, since you can debug your game on 20 FPS as well as on 60 FPS, but this is a very different story. Yandere Simulator is huge. Once you fixed a bug, you want to test it, right? And your workflow right now probably looks like this:
  1. Fix the code (unavoidable time loss)
  2. Rebuild the project (can take a loooong time)
  3. Load your game (can take a loooong time)
  4. Test it (unavoidable time loss, unless another bug has popped up via unit testing, code analyzer etc.)
And you can fix it. For instance, I know that Yandere Simulator makes all the students' photos during loading. Why should that be done there? Why not either move it to project building stage by adding build hook so Unity does that for you during full project rebuild, or, even better, why not disable it completely or replace with «PLACEHOLDER» text for debug builds? Each second spent watching the loading screen will be rightfully interpreted as «son is not coding» by the community.
Is it too late to reduce loading times? Hell NO.
  1. Jenkins
Or any other continuous integration tool. «Rebuild a project» can take a long time too, and what can we do about that? Let me give you an idea. Buy a new PC. Get a 32-core Threadripper, 32 GB of fastest RAM you can afford and a cool motherboard which would support all of that (of course, Ryzen/i5/Celeron/i386/Raspberry Pi is fine too, but the faster, the better). The rest is not necessary, e.g. a barely functional second hand video card burned out by bitcoin mining is fine. You set up another PC in your room. You connect it to your network. You set up ramdisk to speed things up even more. You properly set up Jenkins) on this PC. From now on, Jenkins cares about the rest: tracking your Git repository, (re)building process, large and time-consuming unit tests, invoking static code analyzer, profiling, generating reports and whatever else you can and want to hook up. More importantly, you can fix another bug while Jenkins is rebuilding the project for the previous one et cetera.
In general, continuous integration is a great technology to quickly track down errors that were introduced in previous versions, attempting to avoid those kinds of bug hunting sessions. I am highly unsure if continuous integration is needed for 10000-20000 source lines long projects, but things can be different as soon as we step into the 100k+ territory, and Yandere Simulator by now has approximately 150k+ source lines of code. I think that probably continuous integration might be well worth it for Yandere Simulator.
Is it too late to add continuous integration? NO, albeit it is going to take some time and skills to set up.
  1. Stop caring about the criticism
Stop comparing Alex to Scott Cawton. IMO Alex is very similar to the person known as SgtMarkIV, the developer of Brutal Doom, who is also a notorious edgelord who, for example, also once told somebody to kill himself, just like… However, being a horrible person, SgtMarkIV does his job. He simply does not care much about public opinion. That's the difference.
  1. Go outside
Enough said. Your brain works slower if you only think about games and if you can't provide it with enough oxygen supply. I know that this one is probably the hardest to implement, but…
That's all, folks.
Bonus: Do you think how short this list would have been if someone just simply listened to Mike Zaimont instead of breaking down in tears?
submitted by Dezhitse to Osana [link] [comments]

Epic Cash AMA Recap with CryptoDiffer Community

CryptoDiffer team Hello, everyone! We are glad to meet here: Max Freeman (@maxfreeman4), Project Lead at Epic Cash Yoga Dude (@Yogadude), PR&Marketing at Epic Cash Xenolink (@Xenolink), Advisor at Epic Cash
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash Thanks Max, we are excited to be here!
Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash Hello Everyone! Thank you for having us here!
Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash Thank you to the CryptoDiffer team and CryptoDiffer community for hosting us!
CryptoDiffer team Let`s start from the first introduction question: Q1: Can you introduce yourself to the community? What is your background and how did you join Epic Cash?
Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash
Hello! My background is Marketing and Business Development, I’ve been in crypto since 2011 started with Bitcoin, then Monero in 2014, Ethereum in 2015 and at some point Doge for fun and profit. I joined Epic Cash team in September 2019 handling PR and Marketing.
I saw in Epic Cash what was missing in my previous cryptos — things that were missing in Bitcoin and Monero especially.
Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash
Hello Cryptodiffer Community, I am not an original co-founder nor am I a developer for the Epic Cash project. I am however a community member that is involved in helping scale this project to higher levels. One of the many beauties of Epic Cash is that every single member in the community has the opportunity to be part of EPIC’s team, it can be from development all the way to content producing. Epic Cash is a community driven project. The true Core Team of Epic Cash is our community. I believe a community that is the Core Team is truly powerful. EPIC Cash has one of the freshest and strongest communities I have seen in quite a while. Which is one of the reasons why I became involved in this project. Epic displayed some of the most self community produced content I have seen in a project. I’m actually a doctor of medicine but in terms of my experience in crypto, I have been involved in the industry since 2012 beginning with mining Litecoin. Since then I have been doing deep dive analysis on different projects, investing, and building a network in crypto that I will utilize to help connect and scale Epic in every way I can. To give some credit to those people in my network that have been a part of helping give Epic exposure, I would like to give a special thanks to u/Tetsugan and u/Saurabhblr. Tetsugan has been doing a lot of work for the Japanese community to penetrate the Japanese market, and Japan has already developed a growing interest in Epic. Daku Sarabh the owner and creator of Crypto Daku Robinhooders, I would like to thank him and his community for giving us one of our first large AMA’s, which he has supported our project early and given us a free AMA. Many more to thank but can’t be disclosed. Also thank you to all the Epic Community leaders, developers, and Content producers!
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
I’m Max Freeman, which stands for “Maximum Freedom for Mankind”. I started working on the ideas that would become Epic in 2018. I fell in love with Bitcoin in 2017 but realized that it needs privacy at the base layer, fungibility, better scalability in order to go to the next level.
CryptoDiffer team
Really interesting backgrounds I must admit, pleasure to see the team that clearly has one vision of the project by being completely decentralized:)
Q2: Can you briefly describe what is Epic Cash in 3–5 sentences? What technology stands behind Epic Cash and why it’s better than the existing one?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
I’d like to highlight the differences between Epic and the two highest-valued privacy coin projects, Monero and Zcash. XMR has always-on privacy like Epic does, but at a cost: Its blockchain is over 20x more data intensive than Epic, which limits its possibilities for scalability. Epic’s blockchain is small and light enough to run a full node on cell phones, something that is in our product road map. ZEC by comparison can’t run on low end devices because of its zero knowledge based approach, and only 1% of transactions are fully private. Epic is simply newer, more advanced technology than prior networks thanks to Mimblewimble
We will also add more algorithms to widen the range of hardware that can participate in mining. For example, cell phones and tablets based around ARM chips. Millions of people can mine Epic that can’t mine Bitcoin, and that will help grow the network rapidly.
There are some great short videos on our YouTube channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQBFfksJlM97rgrplLRwNUg/videos
that explain why we believe we have created something truly special here.
Our core architecture derives from Grin, so we are fortunate to benefit on an ongoing basis from their considerable development efforts. We are focused on making our currency truly usable and widely available, beyond a store of value and becoming a true medium of exchange.
Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash
Well we all have our views, but in a nutshell, we offer things that were missing in the previous cryptos. We have sound fiscal emission schedule matching Bitcoin, but we are vastly more private and faster. Our blockchain is lighter than Bitcoin or Monero and our tech is more scalable. Also, we are unique in that we are mineable with CPUs and GPUs as well as ASICs, giving the broadest population the ability to mine Epic Cash. Plus, you can’t forget FUNGIBILITY 🙂 we are big on that — since you can’t have true privacy without fungibility.
Also, please understand, we have HUGE respect to all the cryptos that came before us, we learned a lot from them, and thanks to their mistakes we evolved.
Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash
To add on, what also makes Epic Cash unique is the ability to decentralize the mining using a tri-algo model of Random X (CPU), Progpow (GPU), and Cuckoo (ASIC) for an ability to do hybrid mining. I believe this is an issue we can see today in Bitcoin having centralized mining and the average user has a costly barrier of entry.
To follow up on this one in my opinion one of the things we adopted that we have seen success for , in example Bitcoin and Monero, is a strong community driven coin. I believe having a community driven coin will provide a more organic atmosphere especially when starting with No ICO, or Premine with a fair distribution model for everyone.
CryptoDiffer team
Q3: What are the major milestones Epic Cash has achieved so far? Maybe you can share with us some exciting plans for future weeks/months?
Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash
Since we went live in September of 2019, we attracted a very large community of users, miners, investors and contributors from across the world. Epic Cash is a very international project with white papers translated into over 30 languages. We are very much a community driven project; this is very evident from our content and the amount of translations in our white papers and in our social media content.
We are constantly working on improving our usability, security and privacy, as well as getting our message and philosophy out into the world to achieve mass adoption. We have a lot of exciting plans for our project, the plan is to make Epic Cash into something that is More than Money.
You can tell I am the Marketing guy since my message is less about the actual tech and more about the usability and use cases for Epic Cash, I think our Team and Community have a great mix of technical, practical, social and fiscal experiences. Since we opened our YouTube channels content for community submissions, we have seen our content translated into Spanish, French, German, Polish, Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Russian, and other languages
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
Our future development roadmap will be published soon and includes 4 tracks:
Usability
Mining
Core Protocol
Ecosystem Development
Core Protocol
Epic Server 2.9.0 — this release improves the difficulty adjustment and is aimed at making block emission closer to the target 60 seconds, particularly reducing the incidence of extremely short and long blocks — Status: In Development (Testing) Anticipated Release: June 2020
Epic Server 3.0.0 — this completes the rebase to Grin 3.0.0 and serves as the prerequisite to some important functional building blocks for the future of the ecosystem. Specifically, sending via Tor (which eliminates the need to open ports), proof of payment (useful for certain dex applications e.g. Bisq), and our native mobile app. Status: In Development (Testing) Anticipated Release: Fall 2020
Non-Interactive Transactions — this will enhance usability by enabling “fire and forget” send-to-address functionality that users are accustomed to from most cryptocurrencies. Status: Drawing Board Anticipated Release: n/a
Scaling Options — when blocks start becoming full, how will we increase capacity? Two obvious options are increasing the block size, as well as a Lightning Network-style Layer 2 structure. Status: Drawing Board Anticipated Release: n/a
Confidential Assets — Similar to Raven, Tari, and Beam, the ability to create independently tradable assets that ride on the Epic Blockchain. Status: Drawing Board Anticipated Release: n/a
Usability
GUI Wallet 2.0 — Restore from seed words and various usability enhancements — Status: Needs Assessment Anticipated Release: Fall 2020
Mobile App — Native mobile experience for iOS and Android. Status: In Development (Testing) Anticipated Release: Winter 2020
Telegram Integration — Anonymous payments over the Telegram network, bot functionality for groups. Status: Drawing Board Anticipated Release: n/a
Mining
RandomX on ARM — Our 4th PoW algorithm, this will enable tablets, cell phones, and low power devices such as Raspberry Pi to participate in mining. Status: Needs Assessment Anticipated Release: n/a
The economics of mining Epic are extremely compelling for countries that have free or extremely cheap electricity, since anyone with an ordinary PC can mine. Individual people around the world can simply run the miner and earn meaningful money (imagine Venezuela for example), something that has not been possible since the very early days of Bitcoin.
Ecosystem Development
Atomic Swaps — Connecting Epic to other blockchains in a trustless way, starting with ETH so that Epic can trade on DeFi infrastructure such as Uniswap, Kyber, etc. Status: Drawing Board Anticipated Release: n/a
Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash
From the Community aspect, we have been further developing our community international reach. We have been seeing an increase in interest from South America, China, Russia, Japan, Italy, and the Philippines. We are working on targeting more countries. We truly aim to be a decentralized project that is open to everyone worldwide.
CryptoDiffer team
Great, thank you for your answers, we now can move to community questions part!
Cryptodiffer Community
You have 3 mining algorithms, the question is: how do they not compete with each other? Is there any benefit of mining on the GPU and CPU if someone is mining on the ASIC?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
The block selection is deterministic, so that every 100 blocks, 60% are for RandomX (CPU), 38% for ProgPow (GPU), and 2% for Cuckoo (ASIC) — the policy is flexible so that we can have as many algorithms with any percentages we want. The goal is to make the most decentralized and resilient network possible, and with that in mind we are excited to work on enabling tablets and cell phones to mine, since that opens it up to millions of people that otherwise can’t take part.
Cryptodiffer Community
To Run a project smoothly, Funding is very important, From where does the Funding/revenue come from?
Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash
Yes, early on this was realized and in order to scale a project funds are indeed needed. Epic Cash did not start with any funding and no ICO and was organically genesis mined with no pre-mine. Epic cash is also a nonprofit community driven project similar to Monero. There is no profit-driven entity in the picture. To overcome the revenue issue Epic Cash setup a development fund tax that decreases 1% every year until 2028 when Epic Cash reaches singularity with Bitcoin emissions. Currently it is at 7.77%. This will help support the scaling of the project.
Cryptodiffer Community
Hi! In your experience working also with MONERO can you please clarify which are those identified problems that EPIC CASH aims to develop and resolve? What’s the main advantage that EPIC CASH has over MONERO? Thank you!
Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash
First, I must admit that I am still a huge fan and HODLer of Monero. That said:
✅ our blockchain is MUCH lighter than Monero’s
✅ our transaction processing speed is much faster
✅ our address-less blockchain is more private
✅ Epic Cash can be mined with CPU (RandomX) GPU (ProgPow) and Cuckoo, whereas Monero migrated to RandomX and currently only mineable with CPU
Cryptodiffer Community
  1. the feature ‘Cut Through’ deletes old data, how is it decided which data will be deletes, and what are the consequences of it for the platform and therefore the users?
  2. On your website I see links to download Epic wallet and mining software for Linux,Windows and MacOs, I am a user of android, is there a version for me, or does it have a release date?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
  1. This is one of the most exciting features of Mimblewimble, which is its extraordinary ability to compress blockchain data. In Bitcoin, the entire history of a coin must be replayed every time it is spent, and comprehensive details are permanently stored in the blockchain. Epic discards spent transaction inputs and consolidates outputs, storing neither addresses or amounts, only a tiny kernel to allow sender and receiver to prove their transaction.
  2. The Vitex mobile app is great for today, and we have a native mobile app for iOS and Android in the works as well.
Cryptodiffer Community
$EPIC Have total Supply of 21,000,000 EPIC , is there any burning plan? Or Buyback program to maintain $EPIC price in the future?
Who is Epic Biggest competitors?
And what’s makes epic better than competitors?
Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash
We respect the older generation coins like Bitcoin. But we have learned that the supply economics of Bitcoin is very sound. Until today we can witness how the Bitcoin is being adopted institutionally and by retail. We match the 21 million BTC supply economics because it is an inelastic fixed model which makes the long-term economics very sound. To have an elastic model of burning tokens or printing tokens will not have a solid economic future. Take for example the USD which is an inflating supply. In terms of competitors we look at everyone in crypto with respect and also learn from everyone. If we had to compare to other Mimblewimble tech coins, Grin is an inelastic forever inflating supply which in the long term is not sound economics. Beam however is an inelastic model but is formed as a corporation. The fair distribution is not there because of the permanent revenue model setup for them. Epic Cash a non-profit development tax fund model for scaling purposes that will disappear by 2028’s singularity.
Cryptodiffer Community
What your plans in place for global expansion, are you focusing on only market at this time? Or focus on building and developing or getting customers and users, or partnerships?
Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash
Since we are a community project, we have many developers, in addition to the core team.
Our plans for Global expansion are simple — we have advocates in different regions addressing their audiences in their native languages. We are growing organically, by explaining our ideology and usability. The idea is to grow beyond needing a fiat bridge for crypto use, but to rather replace fiat with our borderless, private and fungible crypto so people can use it to get goods and services without using banks.
We are not limiting ourselves to one particular demographic — Epic Cash is a valid solution for the gamers, investors, techie and non techie people, and the unbanked.
Cryptodiffer Community
EPIC confidential coin! Did you have any problems with the regulators? And there will be no problems with listing on centralized exchanges?
Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash
In terms of structure, we are carefully set up to minimize these concerns. Without a company or investors in the picture, and having raised no funds, there is little scope to attack in terms of securities laws. Bitcoin and Ethereum are widely acknowledged as acceptable, and we follow in their well-established footprints in that respect. Centralized exchanges already trade other privacy coins, so we don’t see this as much of an issue either. In general, decentralized p2p exchange options are more interesting than today’s centralized platforms. They are more censorship resistant, secure, and privacy-protecting. As the technology gets better, they should continue to gain market share and that’s why we’re proud to be partnered with Vitex, whose exchange and mobile app work very well.
Cryptodiffer Community
What are the main utility and real-life usage of the #EPIC As an investor, why should we invest in the #EPIC project as a long-term investment?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
Because our blockchain is so light (only 1.16gb currently, and grows very slowly) it is naturally well suited to become a decentralized mobile money standard because people can run a full node on their phone, guaranteeing the security of their funds. Scalability in Bitcoin requires complicated and compromised workarounds such as Lightning Network and light clients, and these problems are solved in Epic.
With our forthcoming Mobile Mining app, hundreds of millions of cell phones and tablets will be able to easily join the network. People can quickly and cheaply send money to one another, fulfilling the long-envisioned promise of P2P electronic cash.
As an investor, it’s important to ask a few key questions. Bitcoin Standard tokenomics of disinflation and a fixed supply are well proven over a decade now. We follow this model exactly, with a permanently synchronized supply from 2028, and 4 emission halvings from now until then, with our first one in about two weeks. Beyond that, we can apply some simple logical tests. What is more valuable, money that can only be used in some cases (censorable Bitcoin based on a lack of fungibility) or money that can be used universally? (fungible Epic based on always-on privacy by default). Epic is also poised to be a more decentralized and therefore resilient network because of wider participation in mining. Epic is designed to be Bitcoin++ Privacy, Fungibility, Scalability
Cryptodiffer Community
Q1. What are advantages for choosing three mining algorithms RandomX+, ProgPow and CuckAToo31+ ?
Q2. Beam and Grin use MimbleWimble protocol, so what are difference for Epic? All of you will be friends for partners or competitors?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
RandomX and ProgPow are designed to use the entirety of a CPU / GPU’s unique processing capabilities in a way that other types of hardware don’t work as well. You can run RandomX on a GPU but it doesn’t work nearly as well as a much cheaper CPU, for example. Cuckoo is a “memory hard” algorithm that widens the range of companies that can produce the hardware.
Grin and Beam are great projects and we’ve learned a lot from them. We inherited our first codebase from Grin’s excellent Rust design, which is a better language for community participation than C++ that Beam currently uses.
Functionally, Mimblewimble is similar across the 3 coins, with standard Confidential Transactions, CoinJoin, Dandelion++, Schnorr Signatures and other advanced features. Grin is primarily ASIC-targeted, Beam is GPU-targeted, and Epic is multi-hardware.
The biggest differences though are in tokenomics and project structure. Grin has permanent inflation of 60 coins per block with no halvings, which means steady erosion of value over time due to new supply pressure. It also lacks a steady funding model, making future development in jeopardy, particularly as the per coin price falls. Beam has a for-profit model with heavy early inflation and a high developer tax. Epic builds on the strengths of these earlier mimblewimble projects and addresses the parts that could be improved.
Cryptodiffer Community Some privacy coin has scalability issues! How Epic cash will solve scalability issues? Why you choose randomX consensus algorithem?
Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash
Fungibility means that you can’t distinguish one unit of currency from another, in example Gold. Fungibility has recently become a hot issue as people have been noticing Bitcoins being locked up by exchanges which may of had a nefarious history which are called Tainted Coins. In example coins that have been involved in a hack, darknet market transactions, or even processing coin through a mixer. Today we can already see freshly mined Bitcoins being sold at a premium price to avoid the fungibility problem Bitcoin carries today. Bitcoin can be tracked by chainalysis and is not a fungible cryptocurrency. One of the features that Epic has is privacy with added fungibility, because of Mimblewimble technology, Epic has no addresses recorded and therefore nothing can be tracked by chainalysis. Below I provide a link of an example of what the lack of fungibility is resulting in today with Bitcoin. One of the reasons why we chose the Random X algo. is because of the easy barrier of entry and also to further decentralize the mining. Random X algo can be mined on old computers or laptops. We also have 2 other algos Progpow (GPU), and Cuckoo (ASIC) to create a wider decentralization of mining methods for Epic.
Cryptodiffer Community
I’m a newbie in crypto and blockchain so how will Epic Cash team target and educate people who don’t know about blockchain and crypto?
What is the uniqueness of Epic Cash that cannot be found in other project that´s been released so far ?
Yoga Dude Pr&Marketing at Epic Cash
Actually, while we have our white paper translated into over 30 languages, we are more focused on explaining our uses and advantages rather than cold specs. Our tech is solid, but we not get hung up on pure tech talk which most casual users do not need to or care to understand. As long as our fundamentals and tech are secure and user friendly our primary goal is to educate about use cases and market potential.
The uniqueness of Epic Cash is its amalgamation of “whats good” in other cryptos. We use Mimblewimble for privacy and anonymity. Our blockchain is much lighter than our competitors. We are the only Mimblewimble crypto to use a unique cocktail of mining algorithms allowing to be mined by casual miners with gaming rigs and laptops, while remaining friendly to GPU and CPU farmers.
The “uniqueness” is learning from the mistakes of those who came before us, we evolved and learned, which is why our privacy is better, we are faster, we are fungible, we offer diverse mining and so on. We are the best blend — thats powerful and unique
Cryptodiffer Community
Can you share EPIC’s vision for decentralized finance (DEFI)? What features do EPIC have to support DEFI?
Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash
We view Epic as ideally suited to be the decentralized digital reserve asset of the new Private Internet of Money that’s emerging. At a technology level, atomic swaps can be created to build liquidity bridges so that wrapped Epic tokens (like WBTC, WETH) can trade on other networks as ERC20, BEP2, NEP5, VIP180, Algorand and so on. There is more Bitcoin value locked on Ethereum than in Lightning Network, so we will similarly integrate Epic so that it can trade on networks such as Uniswap, Kyber, and so on.
Longer term, if there is market demand for it, thanks to Scriptless Script functionality our blockchain has, we can build “Confidential Assets” (which Raven, Tari, and Beam are all also working on) that enable people to create tokenized assets in a private way.
Cryptodiffer Community
If you could choose one celebrity to promote Epic-cash, who that would be?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
I am a firm believer that the strength of the project lies in allowing community members to become their own celebrities, if their content is good enough the community will propel them to celebrity status. Organic celebrities with small but loyal following are vastly more beneficial than big name professional shills with inflated but non caring audiences.
I remember the early days of Apple when an enthusiastic dude named Guy Kawasaki became Apple Evangelist, he was literally going around stores that sold Apple and visited user groups and Evangelized his belief in Apple. This guy became a Legend and helped Apple become what it is today.
Epic Cash will have its OWN Celebrities
Cryptodiffer Community
How does $EPIC solve scalability of transactions? Current blockchains face issues with scalability a lot, how does $EPIC creates a solution to it?
Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash
Epic Cash is utilizing Mimblewimble technology. Besides the privacy & fungibility aspect of the tech. There is the scalability features of it. It is implemented into Epic by transaction cut-through. Which means it allows nodes to remove all intermediate transactions, thus significantly reducing the blockchain size without affecting its validation. Mimblewimble also does not use addresses like a BTC address, and amount of transactions are also not recorded. One problem Monero and Bitcoin are facing now is scalability. It is evident today that data is getting more expensive and that will be a problem in the long run for those coins. Epic is 90% lighter and more scalable compared to Monero and Bitcoin.
Cryptodiffer Community
what are the ways that Epic Cash generates profits/revenue to maintain your project and what is its revenue model ? How can it make benefit win-win to both invester and your project ?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
There is a block subsidy of 7.77% that declines 1.11% per year until 0, where it stays after that. As a nonprofit community effort, this extremely modest amount goes much further than in other projects, which often take 20, 30, even 50+ % of the coin supply. We believe that this ongoing funding model best aligns the long term incentives for all participants and balances the compromises between the ends of the centralized/decentralized spectrum of choices that any project must make.
Cryptodiffer Community
Q1 : What are your major goals to archive in the next 3–4 years?
Q2 : What are your plans to expand and gain more adoption?
Yoga Dude Pr&Marketing at Epic Cash
Max already talked about our technical plans and goals in his roadmap. Allow me to talk more about the non technical 😁
We are aiming for broader reach in the non technical more mainstream community — this is a big challenge but we believe it is doable. By offering simpler ways to mine Epic Cash (with smart phones for example), and by doing more education we will achieve the holy grail of crypto — moving past the fiat bridges and getting Epic Cash to be accepted as means of payment for goods and services. We will accomplish this by working with regional advocacy groups, community interaction, off-line promotional activities and diverse social media targeting.
Cryptodiffer Community
It seems to me that EpicCash will have its first Halving, right? Why a halving so soon?
Is a mobile version feasible?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
Our supply emission catches up to that of Bitcoin’s first 19 years after 8 years in Epic, so that requires more frequent halvings. Today’s block emission is 16, next up are 8, 4, 2, and then finally 0.15625. After that, the supply of Epic and that of BTC stay synchronized until maxing out at 21m coins in 2140.
Today we have a mobile wallet through the Vitex app, a native mobile wallet coming, and are working on mobile mining.
Cryptodiffer Community
What markets will you add after that?
Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash
Well, we are aiming to have ALL markets
Epic Cash in its final iteration will be usable by everyone everywhere regardless of their technical expertise. We are not limiting ourselves to the technocrats, one of our main goals is to help the billions of unbanked. We want everyone to be able to mine, buy, and most of all USE Epic Cash — gamers, farmers, soccer moms, students, retirees, everyone really — even bankers (well once we defeat the banking industry)
We will continue building on the multilingual diversity of our global community adding support and advocacy groups in more countries in more languages.
Epic Cash is More than Money and its for Everyone.
Cryptodiffer Community
Almost, all cryptocurrencies are decentralized & no-one knows who owns that cryptocurrencies ! then also, why Privacy is needed? hats the advantages of Private coins?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
With a public transparent blockchain such as Bitcoin, you are permanently posting a detailed history of your money movements open for anyone to see (not just legitimate authorities, either!) — It would be considered crazy to post your credit card or bank statements to Twitter, but that’s what is happening every time you send a transaction that is not private. This excellent video from community contributor Spencer Lambert https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0blbfmvCq\_4 explains better than I can.
Privacy is not just for criminals, it’s for everyone. Do you want your landlord to increase the rent when he sees that you get a raise? Your insurance company to raise your healthcare costs because they see you buying too much ice cream? If you’re a business, do you want your employees to see how much money their coworkers make? Do you want your competitors to trace your supplier and customer relationships? Of course not. By privacy being default for everyone, cryptocurrency can be used in a much wider range of situations without unacceptable compromises.
Cryptodiffer Community
What are the main utility and real-life usage of the #EPIC As an investor, why should we invest in the #EPIC project as a long-term investment?
Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash
Epic Cash can be used as a Private and Fungible store of value, medium of exchange, and unit of account. As Epic Cash grows and becomes adopted it can be compared to how Bitcoin and Monero is used and adopted as well. As Epic is adopted by the masses, it can be accepted as a medium of exchange for store owners and as fungible payments without the worry of having money that is tainted. Epic Cash as a store of value may be a good long term aspect of investment to consider. Epic Cash carries an inelastic fixed supply economic model of 21 million coins. There will be 5 halvings which this month of June will be our first halving of epic. From a block reward of 16 Epic reduced to 8. If we look at BTC’s price action and history of their halvings it has been proven and show that there has been an increase in value due to the scarcity and from halvings a reduction of # of BTC’s mined per block. An inelastic supply model like Bitcoin provides proof of the circulating supply compared to the total supply by the history of it’s Price action which is evident in long term charts since the birth of Bitcoin. EPIC Plans to have 5 halvings before the year 2028 to match the emissions of Bitcoin which we call the singularity event. Below is a chart displaying our halvings model approaching singularity. Once bitcoin and cryptocurrency becomes adopted mainstream, the fungibility problem will be more noticed by the general public. Privacy coins and the features of fungibility/scalability will most likely be sought over. Right now a majority of people believe that all cryptocurrency is fungible. However, that is not true. We can already see Chainalysis confirming that they can trace and track and even for other well-known privacy coins today such as Z-Cash.
Cryptodiffer Community
  1. You aim to reach support from a global community, what are your plans to get spanish speakers involved into Epic Cash? And emerging markets like the african
  2. How am I secure I won’t be affected by receiving tainted money?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
Native speakers from our community are working to raise awareness in key markets such as mining in Argentina and Venezuela for Spanish (Roberto Navarro called Epic “the holy grail of cryptocurrency” and Ethiopia and certain North African countries that have the lowest electricity costs in the world. Remittances between USA and Latin American countries are expensive and slow, so Epic is also perfect for people to send money back home as well.
Cryptodiffer Community
Do EPICs in 2020 focus more on research and coding, or on sales and implementation?
Yoga Dude PR&Marketing at Epic Cash
We will definitely continue to work on research and coding, with emphasis on improved accessibility (especially via smartphones) usability, security and privacy.
In terms of financial infrastructure will continuing to add exchanges both KYC and non KYC.
Big part of our plans is in ongoing Marketing and PR outreach. The idea is to make Epic Cash a viral sensation of sorts. If we can get Epic Cash adopters to spread the word and tell their family, coworkers and friends about Epic Cash — there will be no stopping us and to help that happen we have a growing army of content creators, and supporters.
Everyone with skin in the game gets the benefit of advancing the cause.
Folks also, this isn’t an answer to the question but an example of a real-world Epic Cash content —
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XtAVEqKGgqY
a challenge from one of our content creators to beat his 21 pull ups and get 100 epics! This has not been claimed yet — people need to step up 🙂 and to help that I will match another 100 Epic Cash to the first person to beat this
Cryptodiffer Community
I was watching some videos explaining how to send and receive transactions in EpicCash, which consists of ports and sending links, my question is why this is so, which, for now, looks complex?
Let’s talk about the economic model, can EpicCash comply with the concept of value reserve?
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
In V3, which is coming later this summer, Epic can be sent over Tor, which eliminates this issue of port opening, even though using tools like ngrok.io, it’s not necessarily as painful as directly configuring the router ports. Early Lightning Network had this issue as well and it’s something we have a plan to address via research into non-interactive transactions. “Fire and Forget” payments to an address, as people are used to in Bitcoin, is coming to Epic and we’re excited to develop functionality that other advanced mimblewimble coins don’t yet have. We are committed to constant improvement in usability and utility, to make our money system the ease of use leader.
We are involved in the project (anyone can join the Freeman Family) because we believe that simply by choosing to use a form of money that better aligns with our ideals, that we can make a positive change in the world. Some of my thoughts about how I got involved are here: https://medium.com/epic-cash/the-freeman-family-e3b9c3b3f166
Max Freeman Project Lead at Epic Cash
Huge thanks to our friends Maks and Vladyslav, we welcome everyone to come say hi at one of our friendly communities. It is extremely early in this journey, our market cap is only 0.5m right now, whereas the 3 other mimblewimble coins are at $20m, $30m and $100m respectively. Epic is a historic opportunity to follow in the footsteps of legends such as Bitcoin and Monero, and we hope to become the first Top 5 privacy coin project.
Xenolink Advisor at Epic Cash
Would like to Thank the Cryptodiffer Team and the Cryptodiffer community for hosting us and also engaging with us to learn more about Epic. If anyone else has more questions and wants to know more about EPIC , can find us at our telegram channel at https://t.me/EpicCash .
Yoga Dude Pr&Marketing at Epic Cash
Thank you, CryptoDiffer Team, and this wonderful Community!!!
Cryptodiffer TEAM
Thank you everyone for taking your time and asking great questions
Thank you for your time, it was an insightful session
Spread the love
submitted by EpicCashFrodo to epiccash [link] [comments]

There's a new protocol that makes SPV nodes as secure as full nodes using zk-SNARKs

I've seen it mentioned once on this subreddit, but it didn't seem to get the attention it I think would deserve. It's something Bitcoin Cash would definitely benefit of.
Currently, SPV nodes check the validity of a block by only checking the proof-of-work done (see Section 8 of the whitepaper). Personally, I think this is secure enough, but if one would want to verify that the block actually contains no double-spends and follows the consensus rules, they'd have to run a full node and verify all transactions of the network.
I think it would be pretty cool to be able to verify the whole blockchain as a SPV node without relying solely on proof-of-work. That would at least remove the need to run a full node other than for mining, archives, blockchain archives, scanners and explorers.
A couple of researchers found a novel solution using zk-SNARKs, i.e. zero knowledge proofs. Note that they are a very new cryptographic primitive, that could turn out to be insecure. However, Bitcoin currently has some unproven cryptographic assumptions, too, like ECC or hashes, although for those, researchers have been trying to punch holes into them way longer.
The protocol is called Coda, and I've found a very nice video explaining the concept in simple terms.
The basic idea is to encode the act of verifying the blockchain into a zk-SNARK proof, which is tiny in size and can be verified very quickly, about as fast as a Bitcoin signature. They call it "compressing". However, full nodes/miners are still required to receive/verify/broadcast all the transactions, so it seems to me it would be a rather tiny change to the ecosystem as a whole.
Miners/full nodes of Bitcoin Cash could produce these proofs as part of their protocol, and SPV wallets could be able to verify them, additionally to verifying the proof-of-work, basically as an add-on for extra trustlessness. The only remaining thing miners/full nodes could do to SPV nodes would be to omit transactions by not broadcasting them to the SPV node, which is currently solved by connecting to multiple nodes.
If implemented, even SPV wallets could be sure that miners follow the consensus rules. Which is an argument for bigger blocks, as there's no need anymore to run a full-node on a Raspberry Pi or something at home.
TL;DR: if KEA1 holds => yet another small blocker argument debunked
submitted by eyeofpython to btc [link] [comments]

Anyone feel like the Orange Pi's are faster/more reliable than the Raspberry Pi?

So I've been using the Orange Pi's for a while now (I have a bunch of Orange Pi Zero's, but I also have an Orange Pi Zero Plus and an Orange Pi PC2). I'm running Armbian on all of them, and I've been using them for some compute-intensive tasks (no, not Bitcoin mining). I also have a Raspberry Pi Model B, a Raspberry Pi Model 3B, and a Raspberry Pi Model 3B+. And honestly? It seems like I've had nothing but trouble with the Raspberry Pi Model 3's lately. A couple of examples:
I just haven't had this same level of issues with the Orange Pi's. I set them up with what I need, and they just go. Many of them have been online for over 90 days now (probably the last time I power cycled them) without any issues.
On top of that -- I feel like the Orange Pi's perform better than the Raspberry Pi's do. Good example? Just doing a nice sudo apt full-upgrade. The Orange Pi's zip through that much faster than the Raspberry Pi's do.
Is it just me, or does it seem to anyone else like you get better performance, better reliability, and better value with Orange Pi's?
submitted by mikaey00 to OrangePI [link] [comments]

r/Bitcoin recap - November 2018

Hi Bitcoiners!
I’m back with the 23rd monthly Bitcoin news recap.
For those unfamiliar, each day I pick out the most popularelevant/interesting stories in Bitcoin and save them. At the end of the month I release them in one batch, to give you a quick (but not necessarily the best) overview of what happened in bitcoin over the past month.
You can see recaps of the previous months on Bitcoinsnippets.com
A recap of Bitcoin in November 2018
Adoption
Development
Security
Mining
Business
Research
Education
Regulation & Politics
Archeology (Financial Incumbents)
Price & Trading
Fun & Other
Congratulations Bitcoin on about to be 1 Million subscribers! See you next month!
submitted by SamWouters to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Ledger nano s complications ???

Okay so, a friend of mine is a little confused on the ledger nano s. They want to HODL and put away their crypto for awhile until it makes it like bitcoin ($20,000, $1,000,000 etc) BUT what if until then, The ledger company goes out of business and all of their software and apps supported for their products goes to crap and is no longer supported. YES they are aware of the Third-Party apps just IN CASE this happens but they do not know how to install, manage, and move their crypto if this does. They thought about putting the app or Third-Party apps also on a offline raspberry pi device such as the zero and model 4. However the same goes for that. There is no tutorials so far anywhere (not even yt). Please help so I can calm their paranoia
submitted by mrizzy950 to ledgerwallet [link] [comments]

Vertnode - An automated solution for installing Vertcoin node(s) on Single Board Computers

Hello Vertcoin Community,
Eager to contribute to the Vertcoin Community I began creating step by step walkthrough guides on how to get a Vertcoin node up and running on a Raspberry Pi, Raspberry Pi Zero and Intel NUC. Along with information to get a Vertcoin node up and running was also optional steps to install p2pool-vtc.
I decided that while this step by step guide might be helpful to a few, a setup script may prove to be useful to a wider range of people. I have this script to a point where I think it may be productive to share with a bigger audience, for those who are brave and have this hardware sitting around or like to tinker with projects; I invite you to test this setup script if you are interested, if you run into errors any sort of verbose console output of the error proves to be extremely helpful in troubleshooting.
The script was designed to produce a “headless” server... meaning we will not be using a GUI to configure Vertcoin or check to see how things are running. In fact, once the server is set up, you will only interact with it using command line calls over SSH. The idea is to have this full node be simple, low-power, with optimized memory usage and something that “just runs” in your basement, closet, etc.
Why run a headless node on a Single Board Computer?
The idea is to have this full node be simple, low-power, with optimized memory usage and something that “just runs” in your basement, closet, etc.
Required: USB Flash Drive 6GB - 32GB
Please note that the script was designed for Single Board Computers first and looks for an accessible USB Flash Drive to use for storing the blockchain and swap file, as constant writing to a microSD can degrade the health of the microSD.
Supports

Hardware

All of the hardware listed above is hardware that I have personally tested / am testing on myself. The plan is to continue expanding my arsenal of single board computers and continue to add support for more hardware to ensure as much compatibility as possible.
Functionality
It is worth noting that LIT can be ran with multiple configurations, the ones displayed in the Post Installation Report reflect values that run LIT with the Vertcoin Mainnet. Please be aware that the Vertcoin Testnet chain has not been mined 100% of the time in the past, if you make transactions on the Vertcoin testnet that do not go through it is likely because the chain has stopped being mined.
BE CAREFUL WITH YOUR COINS, ONLY TEST WITH WHAT YOU ARE OKAY WITH LOSING IF YOU USE THE MAINNET.

Vertcoin Testnet Coins

https://tvtc.blkidx.org/faucet/
I've included some documentation on LIT I created which includes information I found to be useful: https://github.com/e-corp-sam-sepiol/vertnode/blob/mastedocs/lit.md
Please visit the mit-dci/lit github repository for the most up to date information on lit: https://github.com/mit-dci/lit

Vertnode | Automated Vertcoin Node Installation Script

https://github.com/e-corp-sam-sepiol/vertnode

Recommended: Use Etcher to install the chosen OS to your microSD card / USB flash drive.

If you intend on installing Ubuntu Server 16.04 to your Intel NUC please use Etcher to install the .iso to your USB flash drive.
https://etcher.io/
PLEASE NOTE THIS SCRIPT MAY GIVE AN ERROR. THIS IS THE NATURE OF TESTING. PLEASE REPORT YOUR ERRORS IF YOU WANT THEM TO BE FIXED/RESOLVED. THANK YOU FOR BETTERING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SCRIPT.

Ubuntu Server 16.04 Setup Details

You can use different clients to ssh into your node. One option is using PuTTY or Git Bash on Windows which is included in the desktop version of Git. If you are using Linux you can simply open a new terminal window and ssh to the IP address of your node (hardware you intend installing the Vertcoin node on).
You will need to know the IP address of your node, this can be found on your router page.
ssh 192.168.1.5 -l pi For example, this command uses ssh to login to 192.168.1.5 using the -l login name of pi. The IP address of your node will likely be different for you, in this example I am logging into a Raspberry Pi which has a default login name of pi.
A brief list of commands that can be used to check on the Vertcoin node status:
vertcoin-cli getblockchaininfo | Grab information about your blockchain
vertcoin-cli getblockcount | Grab the current count of blocks on your node
vertcoin-cli getconnectioncount | Grab the current count of connections to your node. A number of connections larger than 8 means that you have incoming connections to your node. The default settings are to make 8 outgoing connections. If you want incoming connections please port forward your Raspberry Pi in your Router settings page.
vertcoin-cli getpeerinfo | Grab the information about the peers you have connected to / are connected to
vertcoin-cli getnettotals | Grab network data, how much downloaded/upload displayed in bytes
tail -f ~/.vertcoin/debug.log | Output the latest lines in the Vertcoin debug.log to see verbose information about the Vertcoin daemon (ctrl+c to stop)
Thank you to all who have helped me and inspired me thus far, @b17z, @jamesl22, @vertcoinmarketingteam, @canen, @flakfired, @etang600, @BDF, @tucker178, @Xer0
This work is dedicated to the users of Vertcoin, thank you for making this possible.
7/20/2018 Thank you @CommodoreAmiga for the incredibly generous tip <3
You can reach me @Sam Sepiol#3396 on the Vertcoin Discord, here on reddit or @ [email protected]
submitted by ecorp-sam-sepiol to vertcoin [link] [comments]

Is there a niche for a small portable digital "typewriters"? (or the story of my keyboard experience)

Hello, MK Redditors.
I'm here with quite an endeavour.
But first, let me tell you a little (actually, a lot. lol) about myself. My name is Ilya (yes-yes, I love you all). I'm from Russia and I have cerebral palsy (nothing to worry about, it's just the way it is). Because of my creative nature, I always wanted to make something. When I was a little kid, my favourite toy was a LEGO set. I had literary a full bucket of it and was building cities, machines and all sorts of stuff, functional and not. Then the school years came... I did well in school (it was a special one for students with disabilities). The only problem was I could not write. I mean, yeah... I can write by hand (thanks to my parents, pre-school teachers and my first teacher in elementary school), but it's much much slower than the non-disabled people, and even my disabled classmates were outpacing me in writing by hand. In the elementary school it was all right, I tried to keep a pace. But by the 3rd grade (we have 4 years elementary, 6 years middle and 2 years of high school) it became apparent that I needed some extra help with that. We did not have iPads, or iPhones and even cellphones were a luxury back in the late 90s - early 2000s. So the school had a couple of electric (but not digital) typewriters for the students like me. Oh... That clicks... That feels... For a small 10 y.o. me it was huge noisy beast of a mechanical and electrical powers fused together, literally spitting the letters on paper and choking on itself when the jam occurred (which, frankly speaking, occurred quite often under my little unstable fingers). But anyway, I was writing faster and faster. I loved it. To be able to materialise my ideas onto something physical (a.k.a. paper), to be able to express myself through the written text, to make my world on paper. It was fascinating. It was like LEGO, but on a much bigger scale. Because this time I was expressing myself not trough premade pieces of plastic, but rather using the words, building blocks of society and culture. Around the same time, my parents got me my first PC - the outdated Win95 machine with fat tube monitor covered with "eye-protecting" film, floppy discs as the only means of transferring files and, obviously, no internet. Keyboard was much slimmer, but also cheaper. There were no... character to it. But hey... It was the COMPOOOTER! My, personal, with all the software and hardware to explore. Being quite curious child, I was exploring the broad world of Computing. I remember crashing the system a couple of times due to my "what will happen if I delete/run this" to the point of complete wipe of the HD, or messed up BIOS. The computer guy would then come with like 20 Floppies to reinstall the system. The pure childish curiosity and no fear of making mistakes... The golden years, indeed.
The teenage years came in. I started to write poetry and songs. Because... well... hormones, love, hatred, broken heart and other teenage shite. OOTERS are becoming more powerful, KEEBS are becoming cheaper and shittier. One time I've completely worn off WASD claster (I loved Video Games. I still am, just don't have enough time to play them. The adult life got the best of me... lol)
Then... well... Came the UNI-time... I've switched to Mac to be "more productive", plus the MacOS looked nice and Windows were starting to go downhill. With Uni came the tremendous amount of writing. The first year I typed my course notes on a touch screen of my iPad. Because it's portable and much lighter than notebook (laptop). Then I got myself the case with the keyboard. The shittiest keyboard of all... Small... Uncomfortable... Rubbery-domey... My Apple Wireless is not the best keeb, but at least bearable. But what other options I had, for real? I could bring Battleship-type of keeb for iPad... But I did not know that mechanical keyboards existed. Until recently. I've beed lurking this place for quite some time. And thanks to this wonderful community, I'll be getting my first mech very soon. It's quite the investment. We shall see if it pays out.....
My other passion is programming and DIY electronics. I'm still a noob at it. But hey... Learning new skills is fun and good for your brain. I have built a 3D printer, a portable PC that I designed myself and a retro gaming console (on a RPi). So yeah...
So... TL;DR of this long introductory section: I love writing (as you can probably tell by this wall of text), computers and DIY.
That is my story so far. As you can see, the keyboards (at least for the way I see it) are becoming worse and worse, while PCs are becoming more commonly distributed. I mean EVERYONE's got a computer in one form or another, be it a stationary PC, a tablet PC or a smartphone.
Plus, the devises are becoming "smart". The "smartification" of our devices is so common, that we don't know whether our smart fridge is secretly streaming our nightly snack for the whole Internet to watch or mining that sweet sweet Bitcoin for the North Korea while we are on a holiday.
I'm thinking about my next DIY project. And since I've got my hands dirty in PCB design, I'm thinking of throwing together every skill I have and make... drum roll, please...
__
The portable digital typewriter.
__
Basically a smart mechanical keyboard. Something like Freewrite, but smaller and more portable and definitely cheaper. I'm thinking maybe a 40% layout with the Pi Zero W (even smaller version of a Raspberry Pi) as the brain.
If I like the end result, I might as well make a small batch and sell it. So... My main question is this:
Is there a market for such devices? Or is it just a gimmicky gadget that will be there for the LOLs? What are your opinions on such a device?
I myself would see this as a small niche item for the disabled like me who is in need for the small and portable device to write on or the writers who don't like to carry the laptop and the mech keyboard with them.
What do you, guys and gals of MKR, think about it?
Once again, sorry for a wall of text.
submitted by ILWrites to MechanicalKeyboards [link] [comments]

What kind of IOT data will be valuable to sell?

As you are aware, the data marketplace will be open to everyone eventually. I would like to invest in some mining equipment, of course not for Bitcoin/Altcoin mining but for data mining to collect data which could be sold in data.iota.org. For this, I would love to hear your advice on two subjects: the types of data that could be collected and the hardware platforms which would communicate with the tangle (or with a full node) to transfer the data through the tangle.

Data types

There are a lot of types of sensors. So I was wondering which type of data would have the most value to sell? Here are some data type examples I could find that can be calculated/retrieved with existent specialized hardware sensors:

Hardware platforms

What would you buy? I think the price of the computer, the amount of sensors that are embedded to or the amount of sensors that could be connected to and the energy efficiency are the most important aspects to look for. A few examples:
What do you think? In what would you invest? Btw, I'm not trying to become rich with this, it's just an experiment.
submitted by milad_nazari to Iota [link] [comments]

Tested, step-by-step tutorial to run a 21 Bitcoin Computer as a virtual machine

Many thanks to ButtcoinEE and ecafyelims for initial pointers, but if I understood correctly, both users said they hadn't actually tried it themselves. So here comes a tutorial based on something I actually tried. Best of all: You don't even need a Raspberry Pi! We'll run it as a virtual machine.
The first step is to get a Debian 8 (Jessie) installation up and running. You might want to install that inside a VMWare/Virtualbox machine. I'll be using Vagrant here ( https://www.vagrantup.com/ ) which makes it easy to manage virtual machines like that and already has a Debian 8 image in the catalog. So get Vagrant for your platform and then do something like this:
vagrant init ARTACK/debian-jessie vagrant up 
You should now be able to SSH into the machine:
vagrant ssh 
Now that we have a Debian up and running, let's first get some packages we'll need later:
sudo su # become root apt-get update apt-get upgrade apt-get install apt-transport-https git cython3 python3-setuptools 
Add the 21 Debian repository:
echo "deb https://apt.21.co stable main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/twentyone.list apt-get update 
It'll complain about a missing GPG key, but you can just ignore that.
We should be able to do 'apt-get install two1' now, but it complains about a missing package 'python3-sha256'. The reason for that is probably, that we are doing this on a x86 architecture, where the packages are slightly different than the Raspberry Pi's ARM architecture. So we'll just manually install the package and have it ignore the dependency errors:
aptitude download two1 dpkg -i two1_1.0.0-1_all.deb 
Now let it try to fetch as many of the dependencies as possible:
apt-get -f install 
And try to install again (had to do this again, not sure why):
dpkg -i two1_1.0.0-1_all.deb 
The 21 binary should now be available:
which 21 # => /usbin/21 
Before we can run it, we'll need that missing python-256 package. We can install it manually from https://github.com/cloudtools/sha256 :
git clone https://github.com/cloudtools/sha256.git cd sha256 python3 setup.py sdist python3 setup.py install 
Now try to get a status report via the 21 tool:
21 status 
If everything worked out, you should see something like:
You do not have a Bitcoin wallet configured. Let's create one. Press any key ... 
and will also be asked to pick a username for a 21.co account.
All 21 Bitcoin computers are networked together into a VPN using the tool ZeroTier ( https://www.zerotier.com ). Let's also set that up:
wget https://download.zerotier.com/dist/zerotier-one_1.1.0_amd64.deb dpkg -i zerotier-one_1.1.0_amd64.deb 
We'll have to extract the credentials for the specific network they use from 21's zerotier package:
mkdir credentials cd credentials wget https://apt.21.co/pool/z/ze/zerotier-one_1.1.0-1_armhf.deb ar x zerotier-one_1.1.0-1_armhf.deb tar xf data.tar.xz cp valib/zerotier-one/updates.d/ZeroTierOneInstaller-linux-armv6l-1_1_0 /valib/zerotier-one/updates.d/ 
Before we join the network, we need to lock down our machine. That's actually a bit tricky, as these Vagrant images aren't really designed with security in mind, but rather only to be used for local testing. I think it should be enough to do:
passwd vagrant rm /home/vagrant/.ssh/authorized_keys 
Note that you won't be able to use 'vagrant ssh' any longer afterwards, as we just deleted the standard Vagrant key-based login. You'll have to use 'ssh [email protected]' instead. Now we are ready to join the network:
wget https://gist.githubusercontent.com/balajis/6d495bb40fb157a58677/raw/21-join.py python3 21-join.py python3 21-join.py # might have to try this twice as well ifconfig zt0 # will show your new IP within the VPN 
The 21 tools have a concept of both an on-chain balance and an off-chain balance - the latter being managed by 21's server. You can deposit to your on-chain balance, but currently the only way to increase the off-chain balance is by mining or by receiving payments from others. Without the mining chip it's therefore a bit tricky to increase that off-chain balance. I hear that a feature request is being considered, to allow moving funds from on-chain to off-chain.
That's all! If you want to give it a shot, you should probably move fast, as 21 has some DRM in the works, as per this comment: https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/3tnjz7/tutorial_turn_your_35_raspberry_pi_into_a_21/cx7tih3 .
This was brought to you by https://coinado.io/ - cloud torrenting for command line fans. Check us out - we are also big on micropayments! ;-)
submitted by coinadoio to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How long does it take grcpool to update magnitude?

I'm a newbie so please be gentle with me, and I apologise for any irrelevant information.
I've ran SETI on and off since 2006, and since my son has been going on about Bitcoins, we both decided to mine Gridcoins just for the sake of it as we'd be running SETI anyway.
After setting up the wallet, signing up to grcpool and figuring out how to get rid of the warnings that the project wasn't attached properly I left it running on two standard desktop PCs (AMD A4 APU with a Nvidia 650 GT, and an Intel G3258 with a Nvidia 1050 Ti) and a Raspberry Pi 3 (just because I could).
Anyway, after running it for 16 hours the grcpool still says the magnitude is 0. The RAC for AMD is at 10.526872 and the Intel is 3.910567 (although it did spend half the time solo mining), but the magnitude and daily GRC is still zero.
Could someone please tell me if this is normal or have I missed something?
Thanks in advance for any replies :)
submitted by AntonMuerte to gridcoin [link] [comments]

Lore v2 QT on Raspberry Pi

Hello,
 
To follow up to mindphuk's excellent piece on building the headless client on Raspberry Pi (https://www.reddit.com/blackcoin/comments/6gkjrw/wip_blackpi_a_stake_device_based_on_raspberry/), I thought if anyone was interested I'd show you how to get the full QT version running on the Pi on the Jessie with Pixel desktop. This works and has been soak tested for several days now on a standard Raspberry Pi 3. I have since added some coins and it stakes a handful of times a day.
 
Running staking Lore clients paves the way for some of the future use cases of BLK utilising the Bitcoin 0.12 (and newer) core tech, including colored coins. So I'm going to leave this one going indefinitely to kickstart the number of Lore clients staking. It's certainly not mandatory but it will be good in the longer term to have a nice distribution of Lore staking clients.
 
The cross-compile which lets you create binaries for multiple platforms didn't work for the QT version on the Pi, so there is more to do than just running the binary unfortunately, as below. There are folks working on some much cleaner solutions than this for the Pi, with a custom front end, and where you won't have to do any mucking about. That is coming soon. In the meantime, if you enjoy a fiddle with such things, here's how to get this QT client working on your Pi.
 
These instructions assume you are starting from scratch with a completely blank OS.
 
Download Jessie with Pixel from: http://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspbian/images/raspbian-2017-07-05/2017-07-05-raspbian-jessie.zip
 
Note they have since (August 2017) released a version called 'Stretch' which does not work with this guide. I'll see if I can come up with something new for that at some point and link to it here when I have. In the meantime the guide should work with the Jessie image above.
 
Unzip the file and extract the .img file to burn it onto Fresh SD card to boot from (to be safe, use 16GB or larger), using a tool like win32diskimager or Etcher.
 
Assuming you have keyboard/mouse and monitor plugged into your pi, boot it up and the Jessie Desktop will show.
 
Before we do anything else, you should increase the default swap size on the pi, as compiling certain libraries can exhaust the RAM and get stuck otherwise. To do this, launch a Terminal window and type:
 
sudo nano /etc/dphys-swapfile 
 
and Change the CONF_SWAPSIZE from 100 to:
 
CONF_SWAPSIZE=1024 
 
Exit nano with control + x to write out the file.
 
Then, run the following to restart the swapfile manager:
 
sudo /etc/init.d/dphys-swapfile stop sudo /etc/init.d/dphys-swapfile start 
 
Now, launch the browser and download the Lore 2.12 binaries for ARM here: https://mega.nz/#!k2InxZhb!iaLhUPreA7LZqZ-Az-0StRBUshSJ82XjldPsvhGBBH4 (Version with fee fix from 6 September 2017)
 
(If you prefer to compile it yourself instead, it is possible by following the instructions in the original article by Mindphuk just taking into account this is the newer version of the Lore client than when that was written (https://github.com/janko33bd/bitcoin/releases) and the versions of Boost and the Berkeley DB need to be the same as below.)
 
Double click the zip and extract the Lore binary files. Yes, at the moment they are all called 'bitcoin', not 'blackcoin' or 'Lore' - this is because the code derives from a recent bitcoin core implementation so this has not yet been updated. You can place these wherever you like.
 
In the Terminal window, change directory to where you put the binaries, e.g.:
 
cd Downloads/lore-raspberrypi-armv7-jessie-pixel chmod +x * 
 
That marks the binaries as executable.
 
Now, we need the Boost libraries installed for any of the Lore binaries to work. The project was done with Boost 1.62.0. Unfortunately the Jessie repository only goes up to 1.55, so we need to download and build 1.62 manually on the device.
wget https://sourceforge.net/projects/boost/files/boost/1.62.0/boost_1_62_0.tar.gz/download tar -xvzf download cd boost_1_62_0 sudo ./bootstrap.sh sudo ./b2 install 
 
(This will take almost 2 hours. Have a nice cup of tea and a sit down.)
 
When I came to run the binaries, I found they couldn't find Boost. Running this command fixes that:
sudo ldconfig 
 
Now we are going to install the packages which aren't already included in the default OS installation which the binaries need in order to run:
sudo apt-get install qrencode libprotobuf-dev libevent-pthreads-2.0-5 
 
Now we need to install the Berkeley Database version 6.2.23. This is the version Lore v2 uses. Bitcoin still uses 4.8 which is 10 years old! This doesn't take too long.
wget http://download.oracle.com/berkeley-db/db-6.2.23.tar.gz tar -xvzf db-6.2.23.tar.gz cd db-6.2.23/build_unix ../dist/configure --prefix=/usr --enable-compat185 --enable-dbm --disable-static --enable-cxx 
 
I find this next section of the Berkeley instructions worked better just switching to root, which can be fudged by running sudo su before the rest:
sudo su make make docdir=/usshare/doc/db-6.2.23 install chown -v -R root:root /usbin/db_* /usinclude/db{,_185,_cxx}.h /uslib/libdb*.{so,la} /usshare/doc/db-6.2.23 
 
Now we're going to go up a couple of directories to where the binaries were:
cd ../.. 
 
Then run the client!
./bitcoin-qt 
 
And there you have it. Should hopefully end up looking a bit like this: http://imgur.com/a/eEHGa
 
Using the Bootstrap can save a while syncing. Download it at: https://www.reddit.com/blackcoin/comments/6b3imq/blackcoin_bootstrapdat_up_to_block_1631800
 
Place the bootstrap.dat file into the ~/.lore directory.
 
Run ./bitcoin-qt again, it will say 'Importing Blocks' rather than 'Synchronising with Network'. My pi sync'ed fully in about 5-6 hours.
 
If you want peace of mind that Lore will always start on bootup into the Jessie w/Pixel desktop (i.e. after a power cycle), then you need to create a .desktop file in the following place.
sudo nano ~/.config/autostart/Lore.desktop 
 
And in it, enter the following (tailoring the Exec line below to the whereabouts of your bitcoin-qt file):
[Desktop Entry] Name=Blackcoin Lore Comment=Mining without the waste Exec=/home/pi/Downloads/lore-raspberrypi-armv7-jessie-pixel/bitcoin-qt Type=Application Encoding=UTF-8 Terminal=false Categories=None; 
 
Power usage and payback time
 
After a good while leaving it going by itself, the CPU load averages got down to almost zero, all of the time. Idling, the Pi uses a bit less than 3 watts. This means it would take two weeks to use one 1Kw/h of electricity.
 
If you pay e.g. 12.5 cents a unit, that's what you'd expect this to cost to run in a fortnight. That's around $0.25 a month or $3 a year. Green and cheap and helping to secure the BLK network. I paid for the year's worth of electricity in 2 days staking with 25k BLK. Makes mining look silly, huh? ;)
 
Securing your Pi
 
With staking, your wallet needs to be unlocked and as such, the keys to your wallet are on the device. In a clean and newly installed environment as described above, and if you don't allow others to use your device and there is no other software or nasties running on it, there is no real cause for concern. However, there are some basic security precautions you can take.
 
Firstly, if you have enabled SSH and are playing with your pi across your LAN (or worse, the Internet), you should immediately change the password for the default 'pi' user (which is preconfigured to be 'raspberry'). Simply log in as normal, then type:
 
passwd 
 
You'll be prompted to enter the old and the new passwords.
 
Security by default
 
Your Pi is likely, by default, to not be exposed to incoming connections from the outside world because your router is likely generating a private address range for your LAN (192.168.x.x or 10.0.x.x or 172.x.x.x) which means all incoming connections are effectively blocked at the router anyway unless you set up a 'port forward' record to allow packets arriving on certain ports to be forwarded to a specific internal IP address.
 
As for accessing your Pi across the internet, if you have set up a port forward, this likely has security ramifications. Even basic old fashioned protocols have proven in recent times to have uncaught flaws, so it's always advisable to lock down your device as much as possible, and even if you only plan to access the Pi over your LAN, install a firewall to configure this. I used one called ufw, because it's literally an uncomplicated firewall.
 
sudo apt-get install ufw sudo ufw allow from 192.168.0.0/16 to any port 22 sudo ufw --force enable 
 
This allows just port 22 (SSH) to be open on the Pi to any device on my LAN's subnet (192.168.0.x). You can change the above to a single IP address if paranoid, or add several lines, if you want to lock it down to your LAN and a specific external static IP address (e.g. a VPN service you use). To find out what subnet your router uses, just type:
 
ifconfig 
 
and you'll see on the interface you are using (either hard wired or wifi) the 192.168 or 10. or 172. prefix. Change the above rule so it matches the first two octets correctly (e.g. 10.0.0.0/16 if you're on a 10.0. address).
 
You may already use VNC to access your Pi's desktop across your LAN, this uses port 5900. Add a line like above to lock it down to an internal address. It's not a good idea to expose this port to the wider world because those connections are not encrypted and potentially could be subjected to a MITM attack.
 
You can query the status of the firewall like this:
ufw status 
 
And of course, try connecting remotely once you change the rules to see what works. You should consult the official documentation for further options: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UFW
 
Back up & Recovery
 
There are again many ways to tackle this so I'll just speak about my basic precautions in this regard. Don't take it as a be-all-and-end-all!
 
The wallet.dat file is the key file (literally) containing all the private/public keys and transactions. This can be found in:
 
~/.lore 
 
You can navigate there using Jessie w/Pixel's own file manager or in a terminal window (cd ~/.lore). You can copy this file or, if you'd rather keep a plain text file of all your public and private keys, use the 'dumpwallet' command in the console. In Lore, go to Help > Debug Window > Console and type 'dumpwallet myfilename' where myfilename is the file you want it to spit out with all your keys in it. This file will end up in the same place you launch bitcoin-qt from.
 
The instructions earlier on, when running Lore for the first time intentionally left out encrypting your wallet.dat file because in order for the wallet to stake upon startup, it needs to have a decrypted key already. This isn't perfect, but after a power cycle, it would never stake unless you left it decrypted. So the best practice here is as soon as the wallet.dat file has left your device, i.e. you copy it to a USB stick for example, put it in an encrypted folder or drive (or both).
 
In Windows, one way is to use Bitlocker drive encryption for the entire drive. You should follow the instructions here to encrypt your flash drive before your wallet.dat is on there, and don't forget the password!!
http://infosec.nmsu.edu/instructions-guides/how-to-enable-bitlocker-to-go-for-external-hard-drives-and-usb-flash-drives/
 
On the Mac, I use a software package called Concealer to encrypt files I store on the Mac itself: http://www.belightsoft.com/products/conceale   There are almost certainly free packages with similar functionality, I have just used that one for years.
 
Either way, if you want to just make sure your USB drive is encrypted, you can do so in one-click in Finder before you put the sensitive files on it: http://lifehacker.com/encrypt-a-usb-stick-in-finder-with-a-click-1594798016
 
Note that these disk encryption methods may mean having to access the USB stick on a PC or Mac in order to retrieve the files in the event of a disaster. Be aware this may mean exposing them to more security issues if your computer is in any way compromised or someone nefarious has access to your computer. There are more 'manual' ways of backing up and recovering, such as literally writing down private/public key pairs which this guide doesn't go into, but may suit you better if paranoid about your setup.
 
Recovery
 
The wallet.dat file has everything in it you need to recover your wallet, or if you used 'dumpwallet', the file you saved out has all the keys.
 
Wallet.dat method: Install Lore as normal then replace any auto-generated wallet.dat in ~/.lore directory with your backup. If a lot of time has elapsed and many transactions have occurred since your backup, launch lore with:
./bitcoin-qt -rescan 
 
And if that doesn't do the job, do a full reindex of the blockchain:
 
./bitcoin-qt -reindex 
 
If you used the dumpwallet command, install Lore then place the file containing all the keys that you saved out in the same directory as bitcoin-qt. In Lore, go to Help > Debug Window > Console and type 'importwallet myfilename' where myfilename is that file containing all the keys. The wallet should automatically rescan for transactions at that point and you should be good to go.
 
There are a million ways to do effective security and disaster recovery, but I hope this shows you a couple of basic precautionary ways. There are discussions about better ways to stake without compromising too much security which are happening all the time and developments in this regard will happen in time.
 
In the meantime, feel free to comment with your best practices.
 
submitted by patcrypt to blackcoin [link] [comments]

Lightning Network attack vector

This is a copy pasta from North Korea. I would have commented over there but I was banned, so just copying it over here for discussion. I think this is a very good explanation of an attack vector for LN users, and shouldn't be taken lightly. Thanks earonesty for bringing this up.
Lightning nodes are wallets, and need private keys to sign their own transactions. A hack on a lightning node would allow the attacker to bitcoin contained within the node used for settlement. This means they will have to be hardened nodes, like modern mining rigs.
Yet, the security risk is an order of magnitude greater than in mining - because mining hacks can be detected and repaired quickly at a loss of 24 hours of revenue. After the first 10 or 20 major breaches of amateur-PC lightning nodes, the amateurs will get out, trust-based services will crop up.
Suppose I have 100BTC, and I run a node that costs me $29/month for a dedicated server running a hardened O/S like pfsense. How much will I need to charge to make $29/month? OR maybe I buy a hardened, preconfigured raspberry pi for $150. Suppose in the near future, lightning gets 200k transactions per day, and there are 100K bitcoin participating (P) across 5000 nodes (N). That's an average of 20BTC/node (which is very high ... in real life people will try to spin up smaller nodes). Now each node will get 40 TX/day, or 1200/month.
Just to justify hosting costs (H), it would cost 2.5-cents per transaction for lightning. Or to pay you back for that nice raspberry pi hardened LN node. 2.5 cents gets you zero return on investment for only a 5,000 node network.
To justify the risk of exposing coin in a node, people will also want a return, maybe 1-2% or more - which adds another penny or so. The more nodes you have and the more bitcoin is committed, the more expenses are accrued. The more actual risk of loss there is, the more the risk-adjusted rate will be. (Risk-Free Monthly Interest + Monthly Risk = AR).
My estimate is 1-5 cents per transaction in real costs. NOTE: The real costs have nothing to do with actual costs. People may run nodes for the love of it. But the real cost will just get spread around the Bitcoin ecosystem accordingly.
Finally, if the number of transactions goes to millions on the lightning network... then, finally, you'll see true costs come down to under 1/10 penny.... since interest rates and hosting costs will remain relatively fixed by comparison.
TOTAL = N * H + P * AR TXCOST = TOTAL/TXMONTH 
original post
submitted by blockologist to btc [link] [comments]

Lightning Network Fees

Lightning nodes are wallets, and need private keys to sign their own transactions. A hack on a lightning node would allow the attacker to bitcoin contained within the node used for settlement. This means they will have to be hardened nodes, like modern mining rigs.
Yet, the security risk is an order of magnitude greater than in mining - because mining hacks can be detected and repaired quickly at a loss of 24 hours of revenue. After the first 10 or 20 major breaches of amateur-PC lightning nodes, the amateurs will get out, trust-based services will crop up. Attackers of LN nodes can dump funds to relay partners.
Suppose I have 100BTC, and I run a node that costs me $29/month for a dedicated server running a hardened O/S like pfsense. How much will I need to charge to make $29/month? OR maybe I buy a hardened, preconfigured raspberry pi for $150. Suppose in the near future, lightning gets 200k transactions per day, and there are 100K bitcoin participating (P) across 5000 nodes (N). That's an average of 20BTC/node (which is very high ... in real life people will try to spin up smaller nodes). Now each node will get 40 TX/day, or 1200/month.
Just to justify hosting costs (H), it would cost 2.5-cents per transaction for lightning. Or to pay you back for that nice raspberry pi hardened LN node. 2.5 cents gets you zero return on investment for only a 5,000 node network.
To justify the risk of exposing coin in a node, people will also want a return, maybe 1-2% or more - which adds another penny or so. The more nodes you have and the more bitcoin is committed, the more expenses are accrued. The more actual risk of loss there is, the more the risk-adjusted rate will be. (Risk-Free Monthly Interest + Monthly Risk = AR).
Plug your own estimates of N, H, P, AR (detailed above) into the following and let me know what you get.
TOTAL = N * H + P * AR TXCOST = TOTAL/TXMONTH 
My personal estimate is 1-5 cents per transaction in expenses. NOTE: The expenses have nothing to do with fees. People may run nodes for the love of it. But the expenses will just get spread around the Bitcoin ecosystem accordingly.
Obviously, if the number of transactions goes to millions on the lightning network... then, finally, you'll see true costs come down to under 1/10 penny.... since interest rates and hosting costs will remain relatively fixed by comparison.
submitted by earonesty to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[uncensored-r/Bitcoin] Blockstream vs miners – looking at the incentives around the SegWit2x fork

The following post by Scott_WWS (has been notified) is being replicated because the post has been silently removed.
The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link:
np.reddit.com/ Bitcoin/comments/7a6ew5
The original post's content was as follows:
In reading this article, the idea is proposed that there is a war on between miners and off-chain developers for revenue. Maybe a bit simplistic but the way this article reads, smaller block size inhibits the miners and allows more off chain business for companies like Blockstream.
Maybe I'm reading it wrong but to my eye, this looks like scaling progress is stymied to make off chain solutions more profitable.
If so, that doesn't seem to jive with what I know about bitcoin.
The article:
Blockstream vs miners – looking at the incentives around the SegWit2x fork
The past few months in the Bitcoin community have been filled with discussion of an upcoming hardfork – SegWit2x. There have been a lot of people voicing their opinion on the matter of whether that fork should be allowed to pass or not, but today I would like to look at who I believe to be two key players in this debate – Blockstream (opposing SegWit2x) and the miners, the core signatories of the New York Agreement. More specifically, I will be focusing on the incentives both of those parties have when it comes to dealing with SegWit2x.
What is SegWit2x? SegWit2x was first proposed as a compromise between the various factions in Bitcoin that were trying to solve the problem of blocks being full. It aimed to both enable the activation of SegWit to enable off-chain transactions, and to increase the block size to 2MB to increase the number of transactions that can be processed on-chain. It was to be deployed in two stages – first by activating SegWit in the summer (which already tookplace), and then by increasing the block size in winter (which is still pending).
Basic incentives for everyone When examining why people would be for or against a certain change, it is often useful to look at the incentives they have for being on either side of the fence. An incentive shared by every Bitcoin user and company is to see Bitcoin succeed, be used by more and more people and to gain in value. You can occasionally see someone stating the opposite (along the lines of “it’s good the price is going down, it will slow the adoption rate so the project will be developed further before mainstream starts to use it”, or people wanting to buy the dip in price), but most people that are invested in Bitcoin want to see it grow, that’s pretty much a given.
Beyond that, things tend to get murky. You can see some ideologies come into play and so on. But if you focus on SegWit2x, the basic incentive for both sides appears to come down to the good old money…
Incentives of Blockstream and the miners Blockstream is a for-profit company. As such, it is expected it will increase in value and, at least eventually, start generating revenue. While it had some projects that seem to be a money sink, the core business plan seems to still focus on sidechains – “sell[ing] side chains to enterprises, charging a fixed monthly fee, taking transaction fees and even selling hardware” (which the Blockstream CEO even explicitly confirmed). The original SegWit proposal was introduced by Blockstream’s co-founder.
So with this, we have a clear picture – Blockstream’s revenue stream will come from off-chain transactions. Now, let’s look at the other side of the debate.
Miners are paid directly in BTC by the blocks they mine. They mint new coins with each block, and they also collect fees for any transactions they include in that block. At the moment the block reward is 12.5BTC, and the fees add up to about 0.5 to 2 BTC on average. Pretty straightforward and as described in the original whitepaper.
So the miners are incentivised to include as many transactions in their blocks as they can, giving priority to those that pay more fees than the others per unit of size.
Clash of incentives Both sides of this debate get their money from the same source – transaction fees. Blockstream wants more transactions to flow through their proprietary service to collect more fees from institutions and individuals. The miners on the other hand benefit from more transactions taking place on the blockchain – they earn transaction fees only for the transactions that are included in the block and get nothing from off-chain transactions until they come back onto the chain. With finite amount of money flowing through the network, this is a classic zero-sum game – the more transactions flow through your preferred channel, the more money you have and the less money your opponent has.
In an ideal scenario, we would let both of those options onto the free market and let the consumer choose what they want to use. Some would choose off-chain transactions for their speed, others would prefer on-chain transactions for the immutable records, etc. In a truly free market, the best product will win and the market will reach equilibrium. However, one side is currently at a disadvantage.
The size of the blocks is currently fixed at 1MB and SegWit has been activated on the network. This means that the miners have a finite amount of space to work with, while Blockstream and similar service providers don’t have to do much to promote themselves – when the consumer will see on-chain transactions being too expensive for them and the blocks being full, they will by necessity make their way onto their platform to be able to transact.
Moreover, SegWit transactions have a smaller “weight” to them, meaning you can put more of them in a block and even go over the 1MB block limit with them.
So we have a company that benefits from the traditional blocks being filled, while also giving preferential treatment to on board onto and off board from its proprietary services, while blocking others from increasing the overall throughput, all for “the benefit of the consumer”. This is basically the Net Neutrality battle all over…
Dynamics of power Looking at this only from the lens of money is of course a bit of a simplistic view of things. There is probably a lot more politics, ideology and power in play – SegWit2x is a hard fork to the Bitcoin network being pushed by the miners rather than the traditional core developers. If it is allowed to pass, it will show that they don’t have full control over the project and thus remove them from a position of power, while giving the miners more power on top of the computing power they already hold.
Conclusions If you look at things from pure monetary perspective, the fight over SegWit2x is a fight about where the transaction fees will flow – whether they will be on or off the chain. Increasing the block size will mean more money will be going to the miners, while keeping it low will force more money to flow through SegWit-enabled services, and to a degree, through Blockstream.
SegWit2x is also a struggle for power in the space – who will be able to make changes to the protocol and how things will be handled in the future.
The struggle might be framed in many ways – allowing an average user to run Bitcoin on RaspberryPi, the centralisation of power in the hands of the miners or core developers, an attack on the Bitcoin network, etc. How much of that is genuine concern and how much of it is propaganda from either side it will be hard to discern.
But in the end, it’s probably about money and power…
Photo via Getty Images
Source: BraveNewCoin
http://www.altcointoday.com/blockstream-vs-miners-looking-incentives-around-segwit2x-fork/
submitted by censorship_notifier to noncensored_bitcoin [link] [comments]

/r/crypto Drilldown June 2014

/crypto Drilldown

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Raspberry Pi Crypto mining Rack. Bitcoin Miner Setup : Raspberry Pi - YouTube Raspberry Pi 4 Bitcoin Mining For 24 Hours! - YouTube LivingOnCrypto: Is it possible to mine profitable with a ... Mine Monero with your Raspberry & 4 Useful ways to use PI ...

Cryptocurrency is incredibly popular, from Bitcoin to Litecoin, Ethereum, and Monero. These digital assets are digital, decentralized currencies. There are two main methods for obtaining cryptocurrency: mining and purchasing. Learn all about cryptocurrency mining on the Raspberry Pi! However, the Raspberry Pi is very commonly used in bitcoin mining as the network interface for the ASIC and to provide a website type user interface to manage the mining and your connection to whatever pool. ... So just for fun I'm cpu mining Litecoin on a Zero. In the past 24 hours it's made 0.000000635464 LTC or $.00002623195392. I'm looking to mine crypto on a Raspberry Pi Zero, now I don't mean coins like Bitcoin or Ethereum, I mean ones that are easier to mine. I have read a Pi Zero can do about 10 H/s which would make not much profit at all, but if I created a cluster of let's say 10 Pi Zeros would the hashrate be more? Mining Monero with a Raspberry Pi Zero A couple of months ago, a friend joking said I should try to mine Bitcoin with a Raspberry Pi and see just how far I can get. While I initially laughed it off, the thought grew on me, and just days later, I purchased a wireless raspberry pi zero for about $10.00 US, found an old 32GB MicroSD card, and got ... Raspberry Pi Bitcoin Mining with AntMiner U2 Since this guide has been written the difficulty involved in mining Bitcoin has increased significantly. The techniques presented here are no longer profitable and you will spend more on electricity than you would ever hope to gain through mining.

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Raspberry Pi Crypto mining Rack.

Visit my Amazon store: https://www.amazon.co.uk/shop/tingawinga5 Set up Raspberry Pi to Mine BitCoin With the OS designed for it MinePeon. Get SD formatter: ... Hey Everyone! This is a tutorial on how to setup a fully functioning bitcoin miner using a Raspberry pi. Raspberry pi's are extremely useful for programming ... Buy Raspberry Pi 4 Model B 4GB: https://amzn.to/2tlBfGW How to Setup a Raspberry Pi 4 Bitcoin Mining Rig w/ Bitmain AntMiner U3: https://youtu.be/dPWTSytzN7g... To start mining JSEcoin: http://bit.ly/MineYourJSEcoin Is it possible to use a Raspberry Pi to mine cryptocurrencies and be profitable in 2019? In this video... Orange pi zero is a single board computer better than raspberry pi zero. This is also a bitcoin mining tutorial or an altcoin mining tutorial. You can use this method to start crypto coin mining ...

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